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American Institute of Physics. Center for History of Physics. Study of Multi-Institutional Collaborations. Phase II: Space Science and Geophysics.
Oral history interviews. Space Science: International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), 1992-1994.
Interviews were conducted with members of the project's collaboration using a structured question set covering all stages of in the collaborative research process: the formation of the collaboration and its personnel; the organizational structure; the formation of the experiment teams; the drafting of the proposal; funding for U.S. groups by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; use of subcontractors; development of software for data collection and analysis; the collaboration's decision-making style; role of the Project Manager, Project Scientist, Program Manager, Program Scientist, and graduates students; impact of internationalism; patterns of communications; records creation, use, distribution, and retention; also, comments on the interviewee's home institution and trends in graduate education in space science. Interviews (listed by institutional member of the collaboration and by name of individual) on the design and construction of the satellite were conducted with: ESA: Peter Benvenutti, Duccio Macchetto; ESTEC: Jean Clavelle; Goddard Space Flight Center: Albert Boggess, Dennis Evans, Sarah Heap, Gerald Longanecker, Leslie Meredith; Greenwich Observatory: Alex Boksenberg; Imperial College, London: W.S. Garton; NASA Headquarters: Nancy Roman; Rutherford Appleton Laboratory: Peter Barker, Michael Sandford; Science and Engineering Research Council: Walter Stibbs; University College, London, United Kingdom: Robert Wilson. Interviews on Science Working Group activities were conducted with: Harvard University: Andrea Dupree; University of Colorado: Jeffrey Linsky. Other institutions involved in the collaboration: Astronmisches Institut (Tubingen, Germany), California Institute of Technology, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (Canada), European Southern Observatory (Switzerland), Harvard, Institut d'Astrophysique (France), Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK), Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laboratorio di Astrofisica (Frascati, Italy), Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, Observatorio Astrofisico (Cantania, Italy), Observatorio Astrofisico (Arcetri, Italy), Observatorio Astronomico (Padua, Italy), Ohio State, Oxford Univ. (UK), Princeton University, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stockholm Observatory (Sweden), St. Andrews University (UK), University of Arizona, University of Florida, Universita di Milano (Italy), University of Toronto (Canada), University of Wisconsin, Western Kentucky University,
Launched in 1978, the IUE was designed as an ultraviolet astronomical observatory to be a guest-user facility much like ground-based observatories. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) built the satellite, optical instrumentation, and one ground-control center. Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and University College London (United Kingdom) supplied the detectors. The European Space Agency (ESA) supplied the solar paddles and also built a ground-control center. An international science working group of prospective users advised the spacecraft designers and made the first observations that commissioned the satellite. The spectroscope was the first in space to use echelle gratings and to image rather than scan the spectrum. The power of the spectroscopic system eliminated the need for a large telescope. Consequently, the satellite was light enough to reach geosynchronous orbit, where it could be continuously and easily operated. GSFC controlled IUE for two-thirds of the time and the European Control Center for one-third. Potential investigators propose projects to the IUE Project Scientist for time to use the satellite.
California Institute of Technology.
Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.
European Space Agency.
European Space Research and Technology Centre.
European Southern Observatory.
Goddard Space Flight Center.
Royal Greenwich Observatory.
Harvard University.
Imperial College of Science and Technology.
IUE (Artificial satellite)
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (U.S.)
Johns Hopkins University.
Ohio State University.
University of Oxford.
Princeton University.
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.
Science and Engineering Research Council (Great Britain)
State University of New York at Stony Brook.
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Università di Milano.
University College, London.
University of Arizona.
University of Colorado, Boulder.
University of Florida.
University of St. Andrews.
University of Toronto.
University of Wisconsin.
Western Kentucky University.
Space sciences.
Space sciences -- International cooperation.
Satellites.
Ultraviolet astronomy.
Group work in research.
American Institute of Physics. Center for History of Physics. Study of Multi-Institutional Collaborations. Phase II: Space Science and Geophysics.
Astronmisches Institut (Tubingen, Germany)
Institut d'Astrophysique (Paris, France)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, England)
Laboratorio di Astrofisica (Frascati, Italy)
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory.
Observatorio Astrofisico (Cantania, Italy)
Observatorio Astrofisico (Arcetri, Italy)
Observatorio Astronomico (Padua, Italy)
Stockholm Observatory.
Barker, Peter F.
Benvenuti, P.
Boksenberg, Alec.
Boggess, Albert.
Dupree, Andrea K.
Heap, S. R. (Sara R.)
Linsky, J. L. (Jeffrey L.), 1941-
Macchetto, F.
Roman, Nancy Grace, 1925-
Wilson, Robert, 1927-
Center for History of Physics (American Institute of Physics)
Evans, Dennis.
Clavelle, Jean.
Garton, W. S.
Longanecker, Gerald.
Meredith, Leslie.
Sandford, Michael.
Stibbs, Walter.
AIP-ICOS
American Institute of Physics. Niels Bohr Library & Archives. One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA
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